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The Ultimate Guide to Inorganic Fertilizer

Discover the comprehensive guide to inorganic fertilizers, exploring types, advantages, application methods, and environmental considerations.

The fertilizers that are becoming fundamental in the world of modern agriculture are inorganic fertilizers. They are proving to be playing an important role in boosting crop yield and ensuring food security. Inorganic fertilizers are synthesized in a lab through chemical processes. 

These fertilizers provide quick uptake by plants by supplying vital minerals like potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen in easily absorbed forms. The precise nutritional content of inorganic fertilizers is one of its main benefits. It enables farmers to customize applications to meet the demands of certain crops. 

Inorganic fertilizers aren’t just meant for large crops, they can easily be employed in smaller spaces. These spaces can be your lawn, your greenhouse, etc.

However, questions concerning long-term soil health and environmental sustainability are raised by their production and usage. In this guide about inorganic fertilizers, we will touch on various topics. We explore the varieties, modes of action, advantages, disadvantages, and critical role of inorganic fertilizers.

Inorganic Fertilizer

Inorganic Fertilizers: Detailed Definition

Inorganic fertilizers are also referred to as synthetic or chemical fertilizers. These are compounds produced using industrial methods to give plants the vital nutrients they need. These nourish plants with basic macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). 

Inorganic fertilizers also provide secondary nutrients, such as calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. Micronutrients like iron, zinc, and manganese are also commonly included in these fertilizers. 

In contrast to organic fertilizers, inorganic fertilizers are designed to provide nutrients in precise amounts and combinations.

Balancing the benefits and drawbacks of inorganic fertilizers is crucial for sustainable agricultural practices. The few methods that can optimize crop productivity are listed below.

  1. Integrated nutrient management approaches
  2. Combining inorganic fertilizers with organic amendments
  3. Cover crops
  4. Conservation practices

Inorganic Fertilizers Detailed Definition

Types of Inorganic Fertilizers

Inorganic fertilizers come in various types. The reason is that each of these is designed to provide specific nutrients to plants. Here are some common types:

Nitrogen-Based Fertilizers

We are all aware that nitrogen is a necessary nutrient for plant growth and development. This factor makes nitrogen fertilizers an important part of contemporary agriculture. 

Urea, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium sulfate are the 3 most widely used nitrogen fertilizers. Their wide usage comes from their efficiency and adaptability


High nitrogen content

46%, making it a potent source of nitrogen for plants.

Granular form

Easy to handle and apply.

Water solubility

Can be applied topically or via the soil for quick absorption.


Suitable for various crops (fruits, vegetables, grains).

Nitrogen loss risk

Requires careful management to prevent volatilization, especially in alkaline soils or high temperatures.

Ammonium Nitrate

Dual action

Provides both immediate and sustained nitrogen release with ammonium and nitrate forms.

Targeted use

Ideal for crops needing a rapid growth response or high nitrogen demands.

Fast uptake

Highly soluble, allowing roots to absorb nutrients quickly.

Loss potential

Requires careful application to avoid nitrogen loss through leaching or denitrification in waterlogged soils.

Ammonium Sulfate

Dual nutrient source

Provides both nitrogen and sulfur, crucial for plant growth.

Ideal for specific crops

Excellent for legumes, brassicas, and peas/soybeans due to their high sulfur needs

Reduced nitrogen loss

Less prone to volatilization compared to urea in humid/alkaline soils.

Lower nitrogen content

Requires larger application rates compared to some fertilizers.

For production nitrogen-based fertilizers require ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is a necessary precursor which is commonly produced by the Haber-Bosch process. The Haber-Bosch process involves the reaction of nitrogen gas (N2) and hydrogen gas (H2) with a catalyst at high temperatures and pressures. 

The extensively used nitrogen fertilizers urea (CO(NH2)2) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) are subsequently made. Ammonia reacts with carbon dioxide (CO2) to form urea. To form ammonium nitrate, ammonia reacts with nitric acid (HNO3).

Phosphorous Based Fertilizers

Fertilizers containing phosphorus are essential for encouraging plants to establish strong roots, bloom, and bear fruit. Diammonium phosphate (DAP), monammonium phosphate (MAP), and triple superphosphate (TSP) are three of the most widely used phosphorus fertilizers.

Diammonium phosphate (DAP)

High water solubility

Delivers readily available nitrogen and phosphorus to plants.

Dual application

Suitable for both soil and foliar application for quick root or leaf uptake

Balanced nutrient ratio

Ideal for various crops at different growth stages.

Rapid nutrient release

Perfect for crops needing immediate phosphorus boost (early stages, high demand).

Monammonium phosphate (MAP)

Similarities to DAP

This characteristic of MAP is similar to DAP

High water solubility

Provides readily available nitrogen and phosphorus.

Dual application

Suitable for both soil and foliar application for quick uptake.

Balanced nutrient ratio

Ideal for various crops at different growth stages.

Unique Advantages

High phosphorus efficiency

Especially preferred for crops with high phosphorus needs.


Compatible with various irrigation systems for precision farming.

Reduced environmental impact

Minimizes nutrient runoff and leaching.

Triple superphosphate (TSP)

Different from DAP and MAP 

The characteristics of TSP are different from the other two phosphate fertilizers.

Lower solubility

Slower release of phosphorus over a longer duration

Not immediate uptake

Less suitable for immediate phosphorus needs.


Long-term fertility

Maintains soil phosphorus levels for extended periods.

Suitable for specific crops

Ideal for medium/low phosphorus needs or high soil retention.

To obtain phosphorus-based fertilizers, Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) serves as a primary precursor. The acid is typically derived from phosphate rock through chemical processes involving sulfuric acid (H2SO4) digestion, filtration, and purification. 

Superphosphate fertilizers are crucial for plant growth. These are made by the reaction of phosphoric acid with phosphate rock or by treating phosphate rock with sulfuric acid. This conversion process renders insoluble phosphate into soluble forms, enhancing plant absorption.

Potassium-Based Fertilizer

Fertilizers containing potassium are necessary to promote plant growth, increase stress tolerance, and maximize crop yield quality. Potassium Sulfate, Potassium Nitrate, and Potassium Chloride (Muriate of Potash) are important potassium fertilizers.

Potassium Sulfate

Chloride free

Ideal for chloride-sensitive crops and high-chloride soils.

Dual nutrient source

Provides both potassium and sulfur, essential for plant growth.

Improved sulfur uptake

Benefits crops with sulfur need as well

Low salinity

Suitable for saline or sodic soils with chloride concerns.

Potassium Nitrate


Provides both readily available potassium and nitrogen for optimal growth and yield.

Quick absorption

Highly soluble for efficient uptake by roots and leaves.

Fertigation & foliar application

Versatile for various application methods.

Balanced nutrient ratio

Adaptable to diverse crop needs throughout their lifecycle.

Potassium Chloride (Muriate of Potash)


Widely used:

The most common potassium fertilizer that is readily available and cost-effective.

High potassium content:

Efficient source of potassium for most crops and soil types.


Cost-effective option for crops with moderate to high potassium needs.


Chloride presence

Not suitable for chloride-sensitive crops (fruits, vegetables, ornamentals).

Potential for harm

Excess chloride can negatively impact plant growth and yield quality.

Overall considerations

Consider the chloride sensitivity of your crops before using.

Potassium fertilizers typically come from potassium sulfate or chloride. These compounds are processed from potash sources.

Potassium chloride (KCl) is obtained by mining from subterranean potash mines or as a byproduct of salt manufacture. Other potassium fertilizers include potassium sulfate (K2SO4) and potassium nitrate (KNO3). These are produced chemically by reacting potassium-containing minerals with either sulfuric acid or nitric acid, respectively.

To maximize product yields and quality, the manufacturing process requires exact control over reaction conditions. These conditions may include temperature, pressure, and catalysts. 

After being synthesized, the fertilizers could go through further processing stages. Processing stages can be blending or granulation to improve their nutritional content and physical characteristics.

Compound Fertilizers

NPK and complex fertilizers are examples of compound fertilizers. These provide complete nutrient packages to enhance plant development and maximize crop yields. Here is further information on each.

NPK Fertilizers

What they are

Formulated with an balanced combination of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in varying ratios.

NPK ratio denotes the percentage of each nutrient (e.g., 10-10-10 = 10% N, 10% P, 10% K).


Essential nutrients

Provide nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium for various plant functions.


 Deliver multiple nutrients in one application, simplifying management and reducing labor costs.

Tailored formulation

Meets the specific needs of different crops, soil conditions, and growth stages.

How they work


Foliage development and overall growth.


Root development and flowering.


Fruit quality, disease resistance, and water regulation.


Available in various formulations to suit diverse growing needs.

Complex Fertilizer

What they are

Goes beyond NPK, including secondary and micronutrients vital for plant health.

Examples: calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, zinc, boron, etc.

Helps in 

Comprehensive nutrition: 

Addressing potential and nutrient deficiencies along with ensuring a balanced diet for crops.

Improved health & quality: 

Promoting adequate growth and enhancing resistance to stress.

Sustainable practices: 

Preventing imbalances, minimizing excessive fertilizer use and environmental harm.


Tailored formulations: 

Suit-specific crop needs, soil conditions, and regional practices.

Nutrient-deficient soils:

Ideal for soils lacking essential elements.

Intensive farming: 

Address limited nutrient uptake in high-demand systems.

Overall consideration

They offer a broader nutrient spectrum than NPK fertilizers.

Support sustainable and productive agriculture.

Methods of Application of Inorganic Fertilizers

It is significant to apply inorganic fertilizers the correct way. If used in the right amounts, it is one of the most important agricultural additives. Here are a few methods to apply inorganic fertilizers the right way. 


This technique involves spreading the fertilizer over the soil surface in an even manner. Broadcasting can be carried out manually as well as using mechanical spreaders. This is suitable for large-scale farming. Post spreading, the fertilizer is absorbed into the soil at the time of irrigation.

Drip Irrigation Systems

Fertilizers can be directly incorporated into drip irrigation systems. This way, along with water, the fertilizers also reach the root systems of the plants.

This technique, called fertigation, reduces fertilizer losses from runoff.  This also guarantees accurate nutrient administration. Additionally, fertilization enables the smaller, more frequent administration of water-soluble fertilizers, better matching plant nutritional requirements.

Soil Incorporation

Tillage or irrigation can be used to incorporate the soil after inorganic fertilizers have been applied to the soil’s surface. Nutrient losses from volatilization or runoff are reduced. Consistent nutrient distribution is ensured with the use of tillage techniques like harrowing and plowing.

Deep Placement

For deep-rooted crops or in soils prone to nutrient leaching, deep placement of fertilizers can be beneficial. Fertilizer pellets or capsules are placed below the soil surface. This makes them closer to the root zone to minimize nutrient losses and improve nutrient uptake efficiency.

Advantages of Inorganic Fertilizers

Advantages of Inorganic Fertilizers

There are various advantages to using inorganic fertilizers for your farm or your lawn. A few of these are listed below.

Precision in Nutrient Delivery

Inorganic fertilizers supply vital nutrients to plants at exact ratios and quantities. It has enabled farmers to apply fertilizer in a way that best suits the demands of a certain crop. 

The guarantee of maximum growth, development, and output is the result of inorganic fertilizer usage. Inorganic fertilizers help plants absorb nutrients effectively and grow healthily by providing them in easily absorbed forms.

Quick Nutrient Availability

Inorganic fertilizers provide plants with instant access to nutrients. Not like organic fertilizers, which need microbial action to break down organic materials and release nutrients.

Especially during crucial growth phases, this quick absorption makes sure that crops have access to vital nutrients.

Enhanced Crop Yields

One reason for the increased crop yields is the exact nutritional content and instant availability of inorganic fertilizers. Inorganic fertilizers promote strong development, increased biomass production, and better harvest yields. 

All this is made possible by providing plants with the necessary nutrients in appropriate amounts. This eventually raises agricultural output.

Global Availability

Farmers all around the world have easy access to inorganic fertilizers. Thanks to their large-scale manufacturing capacity and easily obtainable raw ingredients. This worldwide availability guarantees reliable access to vital nutrients. Even in areas where the production of organic fertilizers may be difficult or impossible.

Disadvantages of Inorganic Fertilizer

For everything that has positives, there are a few negatives that you can’t deny. Here we are listing those.

Environmental Impact

The possibility that inorganic fertilizers might have a negative impact on the environment is one of the main worries. Nutrient runoff into water bodies due to overapplication or inappropriate treatment. This overflow is capable of exacerbating algal blooms, eutrophication, and the overall decline of aquatic ecosystems. 

Furthermore, nitrous oxide, which accelerates climate change, is one of the greenhouse gases that nitrogen-based fertilizers may release into the atmosphere.

Soil deterioration

Inadequate soil management techniques combined with a persistent reliance on inorganic fertilizers can cause soil deterioration. Excessive fertilizer application over time can potentially damage soil structure and water-retention ability. 

Not only that it can disturb microbial populations and lower soil fertility. Reduced agricultural output and long-term harm to the health of the soil may arise from this.

Dependency and Resistance

Long-term usage of inorganic fertilizers might make you reliant on outside sources of nutrients. In the end, this means that the soil’s inherent capacity to provide nutrients is diminished.

Additionally, continuous use of the same fertilizers can contribute to nutrient imbalances. It can also add to the development of resistance to pests and weeds. This increases the requirement for fertilizer application or alternative pest management strategies.

So, what’s the verdict on inorganic fertilizer?

By now, you are aware of all the specifics of inorganic fertilizers. They are efficient in providing nutrients in great amounts quickly and conveniently. 

They are constantly acting like fast food for plants. But keep in mind that excessive usage might make your plants feel lethargic. This could also make the surrounding area worse off, much like that fatty meal.

Most significantly, inorganic fertilizer has the potential to be a highly helpful tool if applied correctly. Take a test of the soil, choose the right mixture for your plants, and follow the instructions exactly. Think of it more as an expedient than a miraculous remedy.

A mix of organic options for long-term plant health, such as compost. Remember that balance is key!

You may always get such information by contacting a reliable source, such as our corporate website since it’s OK to ask for assistance.

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